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Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Indian State safes 8 million in one month by using Open Source Technology. Time to think!

Today i have read an article on LFU, regarding Open Source productivity usage in our neighbourhood.  They understand the value of each paisa and know using it with some sense , but our government is still thinking to get some aid despite of lessening their expenditures. An IT field is also a major area of budget consumption. 
I hope that our leaders and key persons should understand the usability of FOSS in our Government sector.


I am presenting the same article for your attention. You may not understand some of the technical details , but i hope you will understand the purpose of this , and what i want to share ...
 <.....Start....
Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB) switched to open source solutions only a few years back, and now, not only manages the accounting and billing information of users across Kerala, but has made impressive savings, year-on-year, using FOSS.
The KSEB was introduced to open source with the billing software Oruma in 2006, and it has not looked back ever since. Its implementation was soon followed by Saras, an accounting software used in expenditure accounting. As a result, KSEB has managed to save Rs 7-8 crore.

Open source in KSEB

KSEB is the statutory body engaged in the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity across the state. It deals with high tension (HT), extra high tension (EHT) and low tension (LT) current transmission to consumers. There are around eleven million LT consumers linked to KSEB, and they are billed through 697 electrical sections across the state, using Oruma. The solution provides for new connections, billing, cash collection and accounting of LT consumers. “The software works in real-time, operates within a client-server architecture, and the database is distributed,” explains Sathyaraj J, joint director, IT at KSEB. “Data of 11 million consumers is stored in around 700 locations, and the data size in each location varies from a few hundred megabytes to 2 GB. The development strategy we follow here is to keep the database independent, as far as possible, so that the option of database portability is open. This way, database features are utilised at a minimum level,” he adds. Each section has a server, and five to six client computers. PostgreSQL is used as a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), Debian Linux as the server OS, Ubuntu Linux as the client OS, and PHP as the server-side scripting language for the Web-based front-end. Right from the beginning, we have been using community-supported open source products in the Oruma project. Oruma caters to new connections, billing, cash collection and accounting of LT consumers. The entire Oruma solution, including requirement gathering, systems analysis, design, coding, testing, piloting and end user training, was developed by an in-house team. This required training 15 employees (mainly, developers), on open source products. The only additional costs incurred were Rs 35,000 for staff training.
The accounting software Saras is also a real-time software deployed in a distributed architecture. It caters to expenditure accounting through the 140 account rendering units of KSEB. The client-server architecture used here is similar to that of Oruma, with the combination of PostgreSQL-Debian and Ubuntu-PHP. “We have invariably used the Apache Web servers in almost all applications, as they are deployed in a client-server architecture,” Sathyaraj claims. Other open solutions developed in a centralised architecture are a Human Resource Management System (a centralised provident fund and payroll software developed in-house); HT and EHT billing software for new connections, billing, collection and accounting; software providing Web-enabled services like e-payment that was developed by TCS, and the Supply Chain Management System, which handles planning, procurement and store management, which was developed by Deloitte. “The outsourced applications employ Java as the front end. CentOS, RHEL and JBoss are also used in the centralised applications. A new website launched by KSEB last year (www.kseb.in) is also on an open source platform, using Joomla,” reveals Sathyaraj.

PostgreSQL—an essential element

For the last four years, KSEB has created over 840 databases across the state. Almost all its applications in major functional areas, operating either in a centralised or local architecture, use PostgreSQL. About 700 PostgreSQL databases have been used in the Oruma project, and over 4,000 employees of KSEB access these databases on a daily basis. Saras has about 140 databases, which are used by about 1,000 users for daily transactions. Three projects under implementation (the Human Resource Information System or HRIS, the Supply Chain Management or SCM, and HT/EHT billing software) also use PostgreSQL databases. The HRIS will have a single database, and over 500 users are expected to use it on a daily basis. The SCM system uses PostgreSQL, and about 1,000 users are expected to access this centralised database for daily transactions. And about 30 people will use the HT/EHT billing software, every day.
Earlier, KSEB used Microsoft’s SQL Server 2000 for its database. As per the recommendations of the Committee for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) constituted by the KSEB, the board decided to select an RDBMS package based on Free Software packages, to computerise the major functional areas in KSEB. Sathyaraj reveals, “The committee also evaluated MySQL and Oracle databases in comparison with PostgreSQL. We chose PostgreSQL because of its capacity to handle huge volumes of data, and its ability to read and write data at almost equal speed. All the projects we have used PostgreSQL for are mission-critical—and so far, we have been satisfied with the results.”

The challenges faced

In the beginning, KSEB faced challenges at every point, from the availability of trained manpower to the dearth of experts who have hands-on experience in handling critical data on PostgreSQL. “However, we managed well, because of the whole-hearted support of the local, as well as global, open source community, and were victorious at the end,” Sathyaraj admits.
One of the main problem areas was porting data from MS SQL Server 2000 to PostgreSQL. “We were new to PostgreSQL. Correcting, updating and porting the data of around 10 million consumers, back then, necessitated developing a new data-entry software on PostgreSQL, and a migration software to port data from SQL Server 2000, before final migration to the Oruma database. Now, the details of new consumers can be added to the Oruma database in real time, using the software,” says Sathyaraj.

Advantages over proprietary solutions

The economic and technical superiority of FOSS over proprietary software paved the way for its selection in KSEB. The board has saved about Rs 7-8 crore by implementing open source tools for deployment of various applications. Sathyaraj reveals, “The use of proprietary software tools invites recurring expenditure in terms of licence renewals and version updation, which calls for huge additional expenditure. The government has become aware about this recurring expenditure, and supports open source solutions to the maximum extent possible to keep IT expenses down to the minimum. The use of open source solutions also relieves government agencies from vendor dependability to a great extent.”
Another important advantage of open source is that the code is with you. “If there is a problem in the code, and you are capable of understanding and modifying it, you can do it without any legal complications. Moreover, let’s not forget the online community, which helps you to any extent. In terms of scalability, PostgreSQL stands at par with industry-known proprietary databases like SQL Server, Oracle and MySQL,” Sathyaraj asserts.

Additional investments

KSEB uses community-supported versions of PostgreSQL in all in-house applications, and so there is no cost component involved. For outsourced applications, there is a cost involved in the form of service support, which can run into a few lakhs, and varies according to the project. Additional investment is required in the form of training. Currently, around 100 employees working at various levels, from developers to systems administrators and systems supervisors, are given periodic training to upgrade their skills in open source.
KSEB uses high-end PCs and servers with an Intel Core i3-560, 3.3 GHz processor or AMD Phenom II X4 955, 3.2 GHz processor, 4 GB DDR3 RAM, 320 GB SATA 3GBps HDDs for Saras and Oruma. The utility company purchased new computers, as earlier, operations and systems were entirely manual. There are around 840 such servers now, operating at various locations. Each high-end PC costs around Rs 40,000. Similar machines are used as servers, for the centralised HRIS project too. Meanwhile, for the HT/EHT billing system, and for the SCM system, rack-mounted high-end servers with Intel Xeon E5540 Quad core processors, 12 GB DDR3 RAM, 2 x146 GB, and 15K SAS hot plug hard disks are being used to host the database and applications.

Open source in the government sector

When asked whether he would recommend open source to others in the government sector, Sathyaraj’s response is: “Why not?” In fact, the National IT Policy and the draft Kerala State IT Policy released recently promote the use of open source as solutions with less investment. “The electrical industry is capital-intensive and requires a huge investment, and utilities are looking for financially viable alternatives for IT implementation. By harmonising the existing human potential of organisations with the available resources, the investment for IT implementation can be brought down. The success of project Oruma and other open source solution implementations in KSEB proves this beyond doubt,” Sathyaraj concludes.
 .....End.....>

Courtesy: http://www.linuxforu.com

Thursday, September 29, 2011

History of Iphone

Being an Android developer, it is very unrealistic to write for an iphone. But the usage of iphone and its induction have produced a great revolution in the smart phone industry.




Steve Job is the man who introduced the idea of iphone by guiding his engineers to explore the touch screens. He unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007 at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco.



Next version of this series was released  on  July 11, 2008, named as iPhone 3G.


Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, a slighlty upgraded model of previous 3G version, but with less price.


On September 30, 2010 Elisa released iPhone 4. It is the current verios of Iphone available in the market.

















Iphone Capabilities

An iPhone can function as a video camera (video recording was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS was released), a camera phone, a portable media player, and an Internet client with email and web browsing capabilities, can send texts and receive visual voicemail, and has both Wi-Fi and 3G connectivity. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch virtual keyboard rather than a physical one. Third-party as well as Apple application software is available from the App Store, which launched in mid-2008 and now has over 425,000 "apps" approved by Apple. These apps have diverse functions, including games, reference, GPS navigation, social networking, security and advertising for television shows, films, and celebrities. 



Comparison

Model iPhone iPhone 3G iPhone 3GS iPhone 4
Status Discontinued Discontinued Available Available
Display 89 mm (3.5 in) glass LCD, 3:2 aspect ratio
480 × 320 px (HVGA) at 163 ppi 960 × 640 px at 326 ppi
Storage 4, 8, or 16 GB 8 or 16 GB 8, 16, or 32 GB 16 or 32 GB
CPU Core 620 MHz (underclocked to 412 MHz)
ARM 1176JZ(F)-S
833 MHz (underclocked to 600 MHz)
ARM Cortex-A8
1 GHz (underclocked to 800 MHz)
Apple A4
Memory 128 MB DRAM 256 MB DRAM 512 MB DRAM
Features USB 2.0/dock connector In addition to previous:
assisted GPS,
includes earphones with mic
In addition to previous:
voice control, digital compass, Nike+,
includes earphones with remote and microphone
In addition to previous:
3-axis gyroscope,
Dual-microphone noise suppression,
microSIM
Camera 2.0 MP, still images only 3.0 MP
30 frame/s VGA video
Rear 5.0 MP
Front 0.3 MP (VGA)
Rear 30 frame/s 720p HD video
Front 30 frame/s 480p VGA video
Materials Aluminum, glass and black plastic Glass, plastic, and steel; black or white (white not available for 8 GB models) Black or white aluminosilicate glass and stainless steel
Power Built-in, non removable, rechargeable lithium-ion polymer battery
Released 4 and 8 GB: June 29, 2007
16 GB: February 5, 2008
July 11, 2008 16 and 32 GB: June 19, 2009
Black 8 GB: June 24, 2010
GSM (Black): June 24, 2010
CDMA (Black): February 10, 2011
GSM and CDMA (White): April 28, 2011
Discontinued 4 GB: September 5, 2007
8 and 16 GB: July 11, 2008
16 GB: June 8, 2009
Black 8 GB: June 4, 2010
16 and 32 GB: June 24, 2010
Black 8 GB: In production
In production




Apple officially announced the launching of the new iPhone on October 4, 2011 at 10:00 AM at the Cupertino Headquarters.




Courtesy:The Gadgets

Sunday, September 18, 2011

SEO Dictionary (P-X)

Page Rank (or PR)
 
PageRank is a link analysis algorithm developed by Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin. A number from one (lowest) to ten (highest) is assigned to a webpage as a measure of its importance, specifically the likelihood that a user will arrive at that page by randomly clicking Links. PageRank is not the same thing as Rank.

Paid Inclusion

Paid inclusion is an advertising program offered by some search engines in which a page is guaranteed inclusion in the Index in exchange for a fee. Unlike Paid Placement, the rank of paid inclusion pages is determined solely by the search engine Algorithm. Paid inclusion sites may or may not be labeled as advertisements depending on Search Engine policy.

Paid Listings

Paid Listings, as opposed to Natural Listings or Organic Listings, are sites that appear on a Results Page because money was paid to the search engine for inclusion and/or position. Paid listings is used as an all-inclusive term for the practices of Paid Inclusion and Paid Placement.

Paid Placement

Paid placement is a program in which advertisers' listings are guaranteed to appear on a Results Page when particular Keywords are searched. The ranking of paid placement listings is determined by competitive bidding. Unlike Paid Inclusion listings, paid placement listings are usually displayed separately from Natural Listings and are labeled as advertisements or sponsored links. Google and Yahoo! Search Marketing (formerly Overture) are two of the largest paid placement search networks.

Pay-Per-Click (PPC)

Also known as cost-per-click or pay-for-performance, pay-per-click is an advertising revenue system used by search engines and ad networks in which advertising companies pay an agreed amount for each click of their ads. This Click-Through Rate-based payment structure is considered by some advertisers to be more cost-effective than the Cost-Per-Thousand payment structure, but it has at times led to Click Fraud.

Position

Also known as rank, position is the place a website occupies relative to the first listing on an Algorithmic Results page in response to a Keyword query. The first page displays Listings in the one through ten positions, the second page eleven through twenty, etc. Businesses trying to get their site into a top ten position will often employ a Professional Search Engine Optimization company. Consumer studies have shown that most search engine users click only on sites that occupy the top ten positions.

Position Reporting

Position reporting is the monitoring of daily changes in search engine Position for indexed URLs that have been optimized for specific keywords by a Search Engine Optimization Company. Position reporting is also used to generate a Search Engine Ranking Report.

Professional Search Engine Optimization

Professional search engine optimization is the modification of a website by an SEO company in order to increase its Position and Page Rank and improve its Click-Through Rate and Conversion Rate.

Query

A query is a question or instance of questioning. A search engine query is a user's request for the information (i.e. webpages) in a search engine's Index that is most relevant to a Keyword or set of Search Terms. Query is sometimes used to mean the actual keywords a user enters in a search box.

Rank

Also known as position, rank is the place a website occupies relative to the first listing on an Algorithmic Results page in response to a Keyword query. The first page displays Listings in the one through ten positions, the second page eleven through twenty, etc. Businesses trying to get their site into a top-ten rank will often employ a Professional Search Engine Optimization company. Consumer studies have shown that most search engine users click only on sites that occupy a top-ten rank.

Reciprocal Link Exchange

A reciprocal link exchange is a quid pro quo arrangement or link exchange between two sites. Reciprocal links usually lead to the home page of the associate site.

Registration

Also known as search engine registration or search engine submission, registration is the submission of a URL to a Directory or Search Engine for inclusion in its Index. Registration is usually free but can also require payment. Registration is a basic but important part of Search Engine Optimization.

Results Page

Also known as search engine results page, the results page is the collection of ranked Listings displayed in response to a search engine Query.

Robot

Also known as Crawler or Spider, a robot is a search engine program that "crawls" the web, collecting data, following links, making copies of new and updated sites, and storing URLs in the search engine's Index. This allows search engines to provide faster and more up-to-date listings.

Robots.txt

Also known as robots exclusion protocol, Robots.txt is a text file stored in a site's root directory that tells a search engine Crawler which site pages and sub-folders should not be included in the search engine Index. However, there is no guarantee that a Crawler will comply with this request. Robots.txt is an alternative to a Meta Robots Tag or password protection.

SEO Professional

Also known as Internet marketing consultant or SEO specialist, SEO professionals use their knowledge of Search Engine Optimization Strategy to improve their clients' Position and Page Rank.

SEO Services

SEO services are all of the tools used by a Professional Search Engine Optimization company, including Analytics and Keyword Marketing.

SEO Specialist

Also known as Internet marketing consultant or SEO professional, SEO specialists use their knowledge of Search Engine Optimization Strategy to improve their clients' Position and Page Rank.

SEO Strategies

SEO strategies are the techniques used in Search Engine Optimization to improve a site's Position and Page Rank and increase its Click-Through Rate. A few SEO strategies are keyword research and content writing, optimized HTML code, and improved Geographical Targeting.

Search Engine

A search engine is a website that enables users to Query an Index of stored webpages gathered by a Crawler for information relevant to specific criteria expressed via a Keyword or Search Terms. The Rank of information/websites on the corresponding Search Engine Results Pages is determined by relevancy as measured by the search engine's Algorithm and/or payment made to the search engine by indexed sites. Sites ranked solely by relevancy are known as Natural Listings or Organic Listings in contrast to Paid Listings.

Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

Search engine marketing is an inclusive term for all techniques used to market a website via search engines, including Pay-Per-Click advertising and Natural Search Engine Optimization.

Search Engine Marketing Professional Organization (SEMPO)

The Search Engine Marketing Professional Organization (SEMPO) is a non-profit professional association founded in 2003 to increase awareness of the benefits of search engine marketing and provide educational resources to members and consumers.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Search engine optimization is the modification of a website for the purpose of improving its natural Rank on Search Engine Results Pages. This is done through a combination of SEO strategies such as directory and search engine Submission, website optimization, content writing and improved Link quality. Please see our SEO services for details.

Search Engine Optimization Company (SEO Company)

A search engine optimization company employs SEO Strategies to improve a website's Search Engine Placement.

Search Engine Optimization Consultants

Also known as SEO professionals or SEO specialists, search engine optimization consultants analyze a website's Position and Keyword strength and offer solutions for improvement.

Search Engine Optimization Software Systems

Search engine optimization software systems enable marketers to generate site data and automatically customize Submission schedules. However, automated submissions should generally be avoided in favor of submissions catered to each search engine's rules.

Search Engine Optimization Strategy

Search engine optimization strategy refers to the specific optimization plan an SEO company employs for the site promotion of an individual client.

Search Engine Placement

Search engine placement means the tactics used by Site Optimization firms to improve their clients' Rank. The term search engine placement is sometimes used to mean the Position of a website on a Results Page.

Search Engine Placement Services

Also known as Internet promotion, optimization services or site optimization, search engine placement services are all of the methods a Search Engine Optimization Company uses to improve a site's Position and Page Rank and increase its Click-Through Rate and Conversion Rate.

Search Engine Positioning

The term search engine positioning can be used in two different ways. The first is to describe the ordering process of indexed websites being ranked by a search engine Algorithm in response to a Query. The second refers to the use of Search Engine Optimization to achieve a higher search engine Position.

Search Engine Promotion

Also known as Internet promotion, website marketing or website promotion, Internet promotion refers to all methods employed by a company or individual to promote a website and increase its Position and PageRank.

Search Engine Ranking Report

A search engine ranking report is a monthly, weekly or daily report of the Position of a company's website Listing in relation to their top Keywords. Position Reporting enables companies to monitor the success of an SEO strategy or Cost-Per-Click advertising campaign.

Search Engine Registration

Also known as search engine submission or web submission, search engine registration is the submission of a URL to a Directory or Search Engine for inclusion in its Index. Registration is usually free but can also require payment. Search engine registration is a basic but important part of Search Engine Optimization.

Search Engine Results Page (SERPs)

Also known as a results page, the search engine results page is the collection of ranked Listings displayed in response to a search engine Query.

Search Engine Submission

Also known as search engine registration or web submission, search engine submission is the submission of a URL to a Directory or Search Engine for inclusion in its Index. Registration is usually free but can also require payment. Search engine submission is a basic but important part of Search Engine Optimization.

Search Terms

Also known as keywords or query terms, search terms are the word(s) or phrase(s) a user enters into a search engine's Query box. A Search Engine Results Page (SERP) ranks indexed sites according to how relevant the Search Engine deems them to the search terms that were queried. One of the most important SEO Strategies companies can employ is to optimize their site pages with content that contains targeted search terms relevant to their products or industry.

Shopping Search

Shopping search engines or search engines with a shopping feature (such as Google Product Search, formerly known as Froogle) allow users to comparison shop by providing lists of sellers and prices in response to a product Query. Some shopping search sites require Paid Inclusion or offer Paid Placement.

Site Optimization

Also known as Internet promotion, optimization services or search engine placement service, site optimization refers to all of the methods a Search Engine Optimization Company uses to improve a site's Position and Page Rank and increase its Click-Through Rate and Conversion Rate.

Spam

Spam refers to any and all Search Engine Marketing techniques that violate search engine guidelines or attempt to gain increased Rank for a site using content that is irrelevant, deceptive or of little value to users. Types of spam include Hidden Text, content that contains nonsensical Keyword repetition, deceptive Cloaking or numerous Doorway Pages that redirect users to the same Landing Page. If a search engine detects spamming the offending site will be Blacklisted or lose Position. Spam is a Black Hat SEO technique.

Spider

Also known as Crawler or Robot, a spider is a search engine program that "crawls" the web, collecting data, following links, making copies of new and updated sites, and storing URLs in the search engine's Index. This allows search engines to provide faster and more up-to-date listings.

Submission

Also known as search engine registration or search engine submission, submission is the providing of a URL to a Directory or Search Engine for inclusion in its Index. Submission is usually free but can also require payment. Submission is a basic but important part of Search Engine Optimization.

Title Tags

A title tag is an HTML tag which contains a sentence of text describing the contents of its associated webpage. Title tags are a very important part of Search Engine Optimization because they are frequently used as the text links that lead to sites from a search engine's Results Page. The best title tags contain strategic keywords that will help a site be indexed properly and appeal to human search engine users.

Three-Way Link Exchange

A three-way link exchange is a Reciprocal Link Exchange established between three domains. However, unlike a two-way link exchange, not all three sites link to each other. Page A links to Page B and Page B links to Page C and Page C links to Page A. Page B does not post a reciprocal link to Page A and Page C does not post a reciprocal link to Page B. Three-way link exchanges are used by owners of multiple websites to increase the Link Popularity and Page Rank of new or smaller sites.

Unique Visitor

Unique visitor is a web traffic measuring term which means the registering of at least one hit on one page of a web site from a unique IP address during a specified report period (typically anywhere from twenty-four hours to a month). A subsequent hit(s) by the same IP address is not counted as a unique visitor during that report period. Unique visitor count can be an effective way of measuring the success of an SEO strategy.

Web Analytics

Web analytics is a branch of Analytics that uses web traffic records to study the behavior of website visitors. Data such as Unique Visitors, Hits, page views, and the connection between Landing Pages and Conversion Rates are used to improve a website or marketing campaign.

Website Marketing

Also known as Internet marketing, website marketing is using the Internet to advertise, communicate and sell goods and services. On an advanced level, website marketing is known as Search Engine Optimization (SEO), which is the use of targeted keywords, crawler-friendly site architecture, Search Engine Submissions and a well-developed link network to improve a site's Position, Page Rank and Click-Through Rate.

Website Optimization

Also known as search engine optimization, website optimization is the modification of a website for the purpose of improving its natural Rank on Search Engine Results Pages. This is done through a combination of optimization strategies such as directory and search engine Submission, Keyword Marketing and improved Link quality.

Website Promotion

Website promotion refers to the marketing aspects of Search Engine Optimization, such as Keyword Submission, Paid Inclusion, and other techniques to increase a site's exposure.

Website Promotion Services

Also known as search engine marketing, website promotion services is an inclusive term for all techniques used to market a website via search engines, including Pay-Per-Click advertising and Natural Search Engine Optimization.

Website Submission

Also known as search engine registration or search engine submission, website submission is the submission of a URL to a Directory or Search Engine for inclusion in its Index. Registration is usually free but can also require payment. Website submission is a basic but important part of Search Engine Optimization.

White Hat SEO

Also known as natural search engine optimization or organic search engine optimization, white hat SEO is the legitimate use of keyword-focused copy and tags, Crawler-friendly site architecture, Search Engine Submissions and a quality Backlinks network to improve a site's Position, Page Rank and Click-Through Rate. White hat SEO does not involve the use of Cloaking, Spam or any other Black Hat SEO techniques.

XML

XML is an acronym for Extensible Markup Language, a simple and flexible text-based programming language used in conjunction with HTML. XML is useful for data exchange and the creation of customized tags.

XML Feed

An XML feed is a form of Paid Inclusion or Search Engine Submission in which an XML document is used to provide a search engine with information about multiple web pages. An XML feed is particularly useful for multimedia sites or database sites that draw a variety of relevant search queries.

Courtesy:http://www.submitexpress.com

SEO Dictionary (G-O)

Gateway Page

Also known as a doorway page or jump page, a gateway page is a URL with minimal content designed to rank highly for a specific keyword and redirect visitors to a homepage or designated Landing Page. Some search engines frown on gateway pages as a softer form of Cloaking or Spam. However, gateway pages may be legitimate landing pages designed to measure the success of a promotional campaign, and they are commonly allowed in Paid Listings.

Geographical Targeting

Geographical targeting is the focusing of Search Engine Marketing on states, counties, cities and neighborhoods that are important to a company's business. One basic aspect of geographical targeting is adding the names of relevant cities or streets to a site's keywords, i.e. Hyde Street Chicago apartments. Another important element of geo-targeting is increasing your site's presence on Local Search engines.

Geographic Segmentation

Geographic segmentation is the use of Analytics to categorize a site's web traffic by the physical locations from which it originated.

Google AdSense

Google AdSense is an ad-serving program operated by Google that provides relevant text, image, and video-based advertisements to enrolled site owners. Advertisers register via Google AdWords and pay for ads on a Pay-Per-Click, Cost-Per-Thousand or Cost-Per-Action basis. This revenue is shared with Google AdSense host sites, typically on a PPC basis (which sometimes leads to Click Fraud). Google uses its search Algorithms and Contextual Link Inventory to display the most appropriate ads based on site content, Query relevancy, ad "quality scores," and other factors.

Google AdWords

Google AdWords is the Keyword Submission program that determines the advertising rates and keywords used in the Google AdSense program. Advertisers bid on the keywords that are relevant to their businesses. Ranked ads then appear as sponsored links on Google Search Engine Results Pages (SERPS) and Google AdSense host sites.

Graphical Search Inventory (GSI)

Graphical Search Inventory is the visual equivalent of Contextual Link Inventory. GSI is non-text-based advertising such as Banner Ads, pop-up ads, browser toolbars, animation, sound, video and other media that is synchronized to relevant Keyword queries.

Gray Hat SEO

Gray hat SEO refers to Search Engine Optimization strategies that fall in between Black Hat SEO and White Hat SEO. Gray hat SEO techniques can be legitimate in some cases and illegitimate in others. Such techniques include Doorway Pages, Gateway Pages, Cloaking and duplicate content.

Hidden Text

Hidden text is a generally obsolete form of Black Hat SEO in which pages are filled with a large amount of text that is the same color as the background, rendering keywords invisible to the human eye but detectable to a search engine Crawler. Multiple Title Tags or HTML comments are alternative hidden text techniques. Hidden text is easily detectable by search engines and will result in Blacklisting or reduced Rank.

Hit

Hit is a somewhat misleading measure of traffic to a web site. One hit is recorded for each file request in a web server's access log. If a user visits a page with four images, one hit will be recorded for each graphic image file plus another for the page's HTML file. A better measure of traffic volume is the number of pages/HTML files accessed.

HTML

The acronym HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language, the authoring language used to create pages on the World Wide Web. HTML is a set of codes or HTML tags that provide a web browser with directions on how to structure a web page's information and features.

Hyperlink

Also known as link or HTML link, a hyperlink is an image or portion of text that when clicked on by a user opens another web page or jumps the browser to a different portion of the current page. Inbound Links with keyword-relevant Link Text are an important part of Search Engine Optimization Strategy.

Index

An index is a Search Engine's database. It contains all of the information that a Crawler has identified, particularly copies of World Wide Web pages. When a user performs a Query, the search engine uses its indexed pages and Algorithm set to provide a ranked list of the most relevant pages. In the case of a Directory, the index consists of titles and summaries of registered sites that have been categorized by the directory's editors.

Inbound Links

Also known as back link, backward link, or backlinks, inbound links are all of the links on other websites that direct the users who click on them to your site. Inbound links can significantly improve your site's search rankings, particularly if they contain Anchor Text keywords relevant to your site and are located on sites with high Page Rank.

Impression

Also known as a page view, an impression is a single instance of an online advertisement being displayed. Search engines and ad networks use impression statistics to charge advertisers on a Cost-Per-Thousand (CPM) basis.

Internet Marketing

On a fundamental level, Internet marketing is using the Internet to advertise, communicate and sell goods and services. On an advanced level, Internet marketing is known as Search Engine Optimization (SEO), which is the use of targeted keywords, crawler-friendly site architecture, Search Engine Submissions and a well-developed link network to improve a site's Position, Page Rank and Click-Through Rate.

Internet Marketing Consultant

Also known as SEO professionals or SEO specialists, Internet marketing consultants use their knowledge of Search Engine Optimization Strategy to improve their clients' Position and Page Rank.

Internet Promotion

Also known as search engine promotion, website marketing or website promotion, Internet promotion refers to all methods employed by a company or individual to promote a website and increase its Position and Page Rank.

Keyword

Also known as search terms or query terms, keywords are the word(s) or phrase(s) a user enters into a search engine's Query box. A Search Engine Results Page (SERP) ranks indexed sites according to how relevant the Search Engine deems them to the searched keywords. One of the most important SEO Strategies companies can employ is to optimize their site pages with content that contains targeted keywords relevant to their products or industry.

Keyword Marketing

Keyword marketing is the use of keyword-optimized content and keyword-specific Link Text to emphasize a site's relevancy to those terms and thereby increase Rank for related web queries. Keyword marketing can also be done through keyword-based ad programs such as Google AdSense. Keyword marketing is an essential component of Search Engine Optimization.

Keyword Submission

Keyword submission is an all-inclusive term for the keyword research/selection, bid cost assessment and budgeting that companies undertake to begin Pay-Per-Click keyword campaigns with advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Yahoo! Sponsored Search and Microsoft AdCenter.

Landing Page

The landing page is the page on which a visitor "lands" after clicking a search engine listing, email link, Banner Ad, Cost-Per-Click ad, or other ad/link. The landing page can be a site's homepage, but is usually a page designed to appeal to users who Click-Through a specific ad or link. Landing pages are also used to monitor site traffic and measure an advertising campaign's success. Well-designed landing pages that are relevant to a user's keyword query will improve Conversion Rates and play a critical role in Search Engine Marketing.

Link

Also known as hyperlink or HTML link, a link is an image or portion of text that when clicked on by a user opens another web page or jumps the browser to a different portion of the current page. Inbound Links with keyword-relevant Link Text are an important part of Search Engine Optimization Strategy.

Link Baiting

Link baiting is the creation of content that incites users to link to your page from another website. The types of link bait vary tremendously, but they include highly informative articles or news stories, useful resources and sometimes controversial or sensationalistic content. Link baiting is a White Hat SEO technique used to help a site improve its Link Popularity and Page Rank. Some sites use link baiting as the centerpiece of a Website Marketing campaign.

Link Exchange

A link exchange is a quid pro quo arrangement or reciprocal link exchange between two sites. Reciprocal links usually lead to the home page of the associate site.

Link Farm

A link farm is a webpage or group of webpages that exist solely to increase the number of Backlinks in a site's link network. A link farm is meant to increase a site's PageRank or popularity and thus improve its search engine Position. However, link farms are considered a form of Spam and sites that rely on them are penalized by search engines.

Link Popularity

Link popularity is the measure of how popular a webpage is by the number of Backlinks it has. However, link popularity is not solely a matter of quantity. Page Rank is achieved when Backlinks are located on reputable, relevant sites rather than so-called Link Farms. Most search engines use link popularity as a factor in their Algorithmic Results.

Link Text

Also known as anchor text, link text is the visible, clickable text between the HTML anchor andtags. Clicking on link text activates a Hyperlink to another web site. Link text is very important in Search Engine Optimization because search engine algorithms consider the hyperlink keywords as relevant to the Landing Page.

Listings

Listings are the indexed sites that appear in ranked order on a Search Engine Results Page in response to a user Query.

Local Search

Local search refers to both the addition of geographical keywords (cities, streets, etc.) to Search Terms and the use of Yellow Pages-type Search Engines such as Google Maps, Yahoo! Local and AskCity to find business services in a particular zip code. Search Engine Placement Services use local SEO to help traditional "brick and mortar businesses" connect with customers in their community.

Marketing Analytics

Marketing analytics is a branch of Analytics concerned specifically with marketing-related information from organic and paid search engine traffic, such as Unique Visitors, keyword-generated sales, Cost-Per-Click advertising, Click Fraud, Search Engine Marketing, etc.

Meta Description Tag

Also known as a description Tag, a meta description tag is a short HTML paragraph that provides search engines with a description of a page's content for search engine Index purposes. The meta description tag is not displayed on the website itself, and may or may not be displayed in the search engine's listing for that site. Search engines are now giving less importance to meta description tags in lieu of actual page content.

Meta Keywords Tag

A meta keywords tag provides search engines with a list of keywords that are relevant to a webpage. This can improve search engine Rank for a page by ensuring it's properly indexed. However, search engines are now giving less importance to meta keywords tags in lieu of actual page content.

Meta Robots Tag
A meta robots tag (named for a search engine Crawler or Robot) lets page authors prevent their webpages from being added to a search engine's Index. Alternatives to a meta robots tag are Robots.txt files and password protection.

Meta Search Engine

A meta search engine derives its listings by running user queries through multiple other search engines and then summarizing the results. A meta search engine does not maintain its own Index. Listings are displayed by meta search engines either in aggregate or categorized by search engine source. An example of a meta search engine is Dogpile.com.

Meta Tags

Meta tags are HTML tags placed in a webpage that contain information for Crawlers and web browsers. Types of meta tag information include page descriptions (Description Tag), page-relevant keywords (Meta Keywords Tag), whether a page can be indexed (Meta Robots Tag), copyright, page refresh dates and redirection instructions.

Natural Listings (or Natural Optimization)

Also known as organic listings, natural listings are webpage listings that appear on a Search Engine Results Page solely because the search engine Algorithm deems them relevant to the Query. Natural listings can contain Paid Listings, but only if they fulfill the same requirements as natural listings. The best way to improve a site's natural listing Position is through Natural Search Engine Optimization.

Natural Search Engine Optimization

Also known as natural optimization, organic search engine optimization or white hat SEO, natural search engine optimization is the use of keyword-focused copy and tags, Crawler-friendly site architecture, Search Engine Submissions and a quality Backlinks network to improve a site's Position, Page Rank and Click-Through Rate. Because about 80% of web users look at Natural Listings first, natural SEO offers a much greater chance of long-term business success than Paid Listings or Pay-Per-Click ad campaigns.

Optimization Services

Also known as Internet promotion, site optimization, or search engine placement service, optimization services are all of the methods a Search Engine Optimization Company uses to improve a site's Position and Page Rank and increase its Click-Through Rate and Conversion Rate.

Organic Listings (or Organic Optimization)

Also known as natural listings, organic listings are webpage listings that appear on a Search Engine Results Page solely because the search engine Algorithm deems them relevant to the Query. Organic listings can contain Paid Listings, but only if they fulfill the same requirements as organic listings. The best way to improve a site's organic listing Position is through Natural Search Engine Optimization.

Outbound Links

Outbound links are all links from a particular webpage that lead to other pages, including pages in the same domain. An excessive number of outbound links can damage a site's Search Engine Positioning because a Spider may perceive it as a Link Farm.


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SEO Dictionary (A-F)

 Algorithm
An algorithm is a set of finite, ordered steps for solving a mathematical problem. Each Search Engine uses a proprietary algorithm set to calculate the relevance of its indexed web pages to your particular Query. The result of this process is a list of sites ranked in the order that the search engine deemed most relevant. Search engine algorithms are closely guarded in order to prevent exploitation of algorithmic results. Search algorithms are also changed frequently to incorporate new data and improve relevancy.

Algorithmic Results
Algorithmic results are the ranked listings search engines provide in response to a Query. They are often referred to as Organic Listings in contrast to Paid Listings because their rank is based on relevancy rather than advertising revenue paid to the search engine. However, paid listings do appear alongside algorithmic results in many search engines, provided they are relevant. Improving a website's unpaid algorithmic results is known as Natural Search Engine Optimization.

Alt Tag/Alt Text
An alt tag is the HTML text that appears while an image is loading or when a cursor is positioned over an image. Alt text is useful in Search Engine Optimization because it can include keywords that a search engine looks for in response to a query.

Analytics
Analytics refers to all the technology, programming, and data used in Search Engine Marketing to analyze a website's performance or the success of an Internet marketing campaign.

Anchor Text
Also known as link text, anchor text is the visible, clickable text between the HTML anchor and tags. Clicking on anchor text activates a Hyperlink to another web site. Anchor text is very important in Search Engine Optimization because search engine algorithms consider the Hyperlink keywords as relevant to the Landing Page.

Backlinks
Also known as back link, backward link, or inbound links, backlinks are all of the links on other websites that direct the users who click on them to your site. Backlinks can significantly improve your site's search rankings, particularly if they contain Anchor Text keywords relevant to your site and are located on sites with high Page Rank.

Banned
Also known as delisted or blacklisted, a banned site is a URL that has been removed from a search engine's Index, typically for engaging in Black Hat SEO. Banned sites are ignored by search engines.

Banner Ad
A banner ad is a rectangular graphic advertisement. Banner ads are one of the commonest forms of online advertising. Their sizes vary, but most measure 468 pixels wide by 60 pixels high. Clicking on a banner ad will direct you to the advertiser's website or a designated Landing Page.

Black Hat SEO
Black hat SEO is the term used for unethical or deceptive optimization techniques. This includes Spam, Cloaking, or violating search engine rules in any way. If a search engine discovers a site engaging in black hat SEO it will remove that site from its Index.

Blacklisted
Also known as banned or delisted, a blacklisted site is a URL that has been removed from a search engine's Index, typically for engaging in Black Hat SEO. Blacklisted sites are ignored by search engines.

Broken Link
Also known as a dead link, a broken link is a link that no longer points to an active destination or Landing Page. Search engines dislike broken links. Keeping all of your site's links active is an important part of ongoing optimization.

Click Fraud
Click Fraud is the illegal practice of manipulating Cost-Per-Click (CPC) or Pay-Per-Click (PPC) revenue sharing agreements. There are numerous types of click fraud, but in a typical scenario the webmaster of a site that earns money from each click of the advertising links it publishes pays individuals a small fee to click those links. Companies thus pay for advertising to clients who had no intention of buying from them. Some companies have filed class action lawsuits alleging that ad publishers such as Google and Yahoo! have failed to aggressively confront click fraud because they benefit from increased CPC revenue.

Click-Through
Click-through refers to a single instance of a user clicking on an advertising link or site listing and moving to a Landing Page. A higher Click-Through Rate (CTR) is one of the primary goals of Search Engine Optimization.

Click-Through Rate (CTR)
Click-through rate is the percentage of users who click on an advertising link or search engine site listing out of the total number of people who see it, i.e. four click-throughs out of ten views is a 40% CTR.

Cloaking
Cloaking is the presentation of alternative pages to a search engine Spider so that it will record different content for a URL than what a human browser would see. Cloaking is typically done to achieve a higher search engine position or to trick users into visiting a site. In such cases cloaking is considered to be Black Hat SEO and the offending URL could be Blacklisted. However, cloaking is sometimes used to deliver personalized content based on a browser's IP address and/or user-agent HTTP header. Such cloaking should only be practiced with a search engine's knowledge or it could be construed as black hat cloaking.

Contextual Link Inventory (CLI)
Search engines/advertising networks use their contextual link inventory to match keyword-relevant text-link advertising with site content. CLI is generated based on listings of website pages with content that the ad-server deems a relevant keyword match. Ad networks further refine CLI relevancy by monitoring the Click-Through Rate of the displayed ads.

Conversion
Conversion is the term used for any significant action a user takes while visiting a site, i.e. making a purchase, requesting information, or registering for an account.

Conversion Analytics
Conversion analytics is a branch of Analytics concerned specifically with conversion-related information from organic and paid search engine traffic, such as the keywords converts used in their queries, the type of conversion that resulted, landing page paths, search engine used, etc.

Conversion Rate
Conversion rate is the next step up from Click-Through Rate. It's the percentage of all site visitors who "convert" (make a purchase, register, request information, etc.). If three users buy products and one user requests a catalogue out of ten daily visitors, a site's conversion rate is 40%.

Cost-Per-Acquisition (CPA)
Cost-per-acquisition (CPA) is a return on investment model in which return is measured by dividing total click/marketing costs by the number of Conversions achieved. Total acquisition costs / number of conversions = CPA. CPA is also used as a synonym for Cost-Per-Action.

Cost-Per-Action (CPA)
In a cost-per-action advertising revenue system, advertisers are charged a Conversion-based fee, i.e. each time a user buys a product, opens an account, or requests a free trial. CPA is also known as cost-per-acquisition, though the term cost-per-acquisition can be confusing because it also refers to a return on investment model.

Cost-Per-Click (CPC)
Also known as pay-per-click or pay-for-performance, cost-per-click is an advertising revenue system used by search engines and ad networks in which advertising companies pay an agreed amount for each click of their ads. This Click-Through Rate-based payment structure is considered by some advertisers to be more cost-effective than the Cost-Per-Thousand payment structure, but it can at times lead to Click Fraud.

Cost-Per-Thousand (CPM)
Also known as cost-per-impression or CPM for cost-per-mille (mille is the Latin word for thousand), cost-per-thousand is an advertising revenue system used by search engines and ad networks in which advertising companies pay an agreed amount for every 1,000 users who see their ads, regardless of whether a click-through or conversion is achieved. CPM is typically used for Banner Ad sales, while Cost-Per-Click is typically used for text link advertising.

Crawler
Also known as Spider or Robot, a crawler is a search engine program that "crawls" the web, collecting data, following links, making copies of new and updated sites, and storing URLs in the search engine's Index. This allows search engines to provide faster and more up-to-date listings.

Delisted
Also known as banned or blacklisted, a delisted site is a URL that has been removed from a search engine's Index, typically for engaging in Black Hat SEO. Delisted sites are ignored by search engines.

Description Tag
Also known as a meta description tag, a description tag is a short HTML paragraph that provides search engines with a description of a page's content for search engine Index purposes. The description tag is not displayed on the website itself, and may or may not be displayed in the search engine's listing for that site. Search engines are now giving less importance to description tags in lieu of actual page content.

Directory
A directory is an Index of websites compiled by people rather than a Crawler. Directories can be general or divided into specific categories and subcategories. A directory's servers provide relevant lists of registered sites in response to user queries. Directory Registration is thus an important method for building inbound links and improving SEO performance. However, the decision to include a site and its directory rank or categorization is determined by directory editors rather than an Algorithm. Some directories accept free submissions while others require payment for listing. The most popular directories include Yahoo!, The Open Directory Project, and LookSmart.

Doorway Page
Also known as a gateway page or jump page, a doorway page is a URL with minimal content designed to rank highly for a specific keyword and redirect visitors to a homepage or designated Landing Page. Some search engines frown on doorway pages as a softer form of Cloaking or Spam. However, doorway pages may be legitimate landing pages designed to measure the success of a promotional campaign, and they are commonly allowed in Paid Listings.

Dynamic Content
Dynamic content is web content such as Search Engine Results Pages (SERPS) that are generated or changed based on database information or user activity. Web pages that remain the same for all visitors in every context contain "static content." Many e-commerce sites create dynamic content based on purchase history and other factors. Search engines have a difficult time indexing dynamic content if the page includes a session ID number, and will typically ignore URLs that contain the variable "?".Search engines will punish sites that use deceptive or invasive means to create dynamic content.

Flash Optimization
Flash is a vector graphics-based animation program developed by Macromedia. Most corporate sites feature Flash movies/animation, yet because search engine Crawlers were designed to index HTML text, sites that favor Flash over text are difficult or even impossible for crawlers to read. Flash Optimization is the process of reworking the Flash movie and surrounding HTML code to be more "crawlable" for Search Engines.





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